A proper site selection is one of the most important steps before beginning construction works. The contractor or civil engineer should consider key factors affecting when selecting a site. Basically, site selection of a building should be done based upon some surveys of various aspects of the site such as the development of the site, cost, the stability of the proposed structure, and type of construction project, for example industrial, commercial or residential building.
Three main categories of factors provide influence to the site selection and layout process.
- Natural Factors
- Man-made Factors or Cultural Factors
- Aesthetic Factors
Following general factors must be taken account while selecting a site for any type of building construction.
- Purpose of Building
- Government Laws
- Shape & Size
- Terrain Condition
- Type of Ground Soil
- Natural Light & Air
- Environmental Condition
- Legal & Financial Aspects
The site selection for residential buildings or housing development
These are the key factors should be taken into account selecting a site for residential building construction.
- Shape of the Plot
- Location of the plot
- Availability of amenities
- Water Table
- Sewerage system
What are factors affecting site selection for commercial buildings
When selecting a site for the commercial building, following factors should be considered.
- Climate of region
- Availability of raw materials for
- Cost and time frame
- Drainage facilities in the site
- Population of the region
Criteria and factors affect site selection for industrial building
Environmental consideration is playing the big role in industrial building construction. The behaviour of the existing buildings or structures neighbourhood may guide in deciding the type and the depth of the foundation of the building to be constructed.
Surveys to do for site selection
The following surveys should be done for site selection of a building or structure:
- Preliminary survey
- Contour survey
- Plane table survey
- Road survey
Site Selection Should Be Focused Sustainability
The sustainability component of the site selection and development process should focus on the selection of sites that will:
- Have the least negative impact on the environment
- Have the fewest possible threats from the environment
- Require the least extraction of natural resources for site preparation, construction, and operation
- Incorporate infrastructure and community-managed systems for minimizing and managing solid and liquid waste
- Offer the best quality of life for residents
There are many areas to consider when selecting a site and design for construction projects from the cost, location, condition and shape of a property to the layout of individual units and the selection of building
materials/systems used in construction.
The aim of the site selection and design processes is to achieve a unique harmony between the building site, building design, people who will live in the building and the surrounding neighbourhood character and residents.