Basic requirements of a building should fulfill the physical, emotional, biological, social and cultural needs of the person who are going to occupy there. A good building has following fundamental requirements.
Strength and Stability
A building should be capable of transferring the expected loads in its life period safely to the ground. Design of various structural components like slabs, beams, walls, columns and footing should ensure safety. None of the structural components should buckle, overturn and collapse.
Excessive deformation of structural components give a sense of instability and result into crack in walls, flooring etc. All structural components should be so designed that deflections do not exceed the permissible values specified in the codes.
Resistance to Dampness
Dampness in a building is a great nuisance and it may reduce the life of the building. Great care should be taken in planning and in the construction of the building to avoid dampness.
Resistance to Fire:
Regarding achieving resistance to fire, the basic requirements laid down in the codes are:
(a) The structure should not ignite easily.
(b) Building orientation should be such that spread of fire is slow.
(c) In case of fire, there should be means of easy access to vacate building quickly.
Heat Insulation: A building should be so oriented and designed that it insulates interior from heat.
Sound Insulation: Buildings should be planned against outdoor and indoor noises.
Protection from Termite: Buildings should be protected from termites.
Durability: Each and every component of the building should be durable.
Security against Burglary: This is the basic need the owner of the building expects.
Lighting and Ventilation: For healthy and happy living natural light and ventilation are required. Diffused light and good cross ventilation should be available inside the building.
Comforts and Conveniences: Various units in the building should be properly grouped and integrated keeping in mind the comfort and convenience of the user.
Economy: Economy without sacrificing comfort, convenience, and durability is another basic requirement of the building.